Waste is generally split into three broad streams:
- Local Authority Collected waste: waste collected by the waste collection authority (district and borough councils) or its agents. This waste includes some commercial and industrial waste, fly-tipped waste, litter and waste taken to household waste recycling centres.
- Commercial and Industrial waste: waste created from premises which are used wholly or mainly for trade (i.e. shops and offices), businesses, sport, recreation or entertainment.
- Construction and demolition waste: waste building materials resulting from the construction, remodelling repair or demolition of buildings, bridges, pavements and other structures. Construction and demolition waste includes intert waste (e.g. concrete, wood, rubble and masonry), plastics and hazardous materials (e.g. lead, asbestos and liquid paints).
The construction industry consumes 400 million tonnes of materials each year. Of these materials, 100 million tonnes is wasted. This includes 60 million tonnes which is due to over ordering, damage resulting from poor storage or inappropriate ordering. The recovery rate from non-hazardous construction and demolition waste in the UK in 2012 (the most recent year with records) was 86.5% i.e. only 13.5% went to landfill. Landfill sites are in short supply, produce local environmental impacts, and the transport of waste to landfill sites creates more CO2 emissions.
Within the construction industry 13% of waste is new, unused material. (BRE)
Research shows that simple steps to reduce waste can achieve substantial savings in the value of new materials wasted, estimated on average at 3% of total construction costs and 20% of material costs on site. Taking action to reduce waste can therefore have a substantial impact on the overall cost of a project
The European Landfill Directive set targets requiring a progressive decrease in the amount of biodegradable waste landfilled.
The Waste Management Plan for England sets out targets from the EU waste framework directive:
a) at least 50% by weight of waste from households is prepared for re-use or recycled.
b) at least 70% by weight of construction and demolition waste is subjected to material recovery.
EU target of recycling 50% of household waste by 2020.
70% target for recovering construction and demolition waste.
England and the UK are already achieving an estimated 93% recovery rate of construction and demolition waste.
- In 2012/13, the amount of waste produced in Hertfordshirewas approximately 3 million tonnes, around a quarter (500,000 tonnes) of which is household waste. 1m C&I and 1.5m C&D.
- The only landfill in Hertfordshire currently accepting a mixture of Local Authority and Commercial & Industrial waste in Westmill in Ware.
- All general and construction waste attracts one of the two rates of landfill tax. The cost of your waste collection service, regardless of how much gets sorted and recycled, will generally be influenced by the rate of landfill tax. The Tax is split into two bands. A lower band is applied to inert waste that contains no biodegradable material, whilst all other general waste has the standard band applied.
- In 2006-07, the County and District Councils spend more than #54 million collecting and disposing of local Authority Collected waste landfill tax at the time was £24/tonne. These costs have increased significantly each year in line with the landfill tax escalator.
- The table below shows the current rates of landfill tax which now increases in line with RPI.
| Waste sent to landfill||Rate from 1 April 2016 ||Rate from 1 April 2017 ||Rate from 1 April 2018 |
| Standard rated
| Lower rated
- Data from the Hertfordshire Waste Partnership shows that in 2015/16, 530,000 tonnes of waste was collected local authorities in the HWP during 2015/16 at a cost of approximately £83.04 million. Of this £43.2 million was spent on waste treatment and disposal with the remainder spent on collection services.
- In 2012/13, 45% of Hertfordshire's waste was recycled by residents compared to the national average of 43.2%.
- The waste planning documents for Hertfordshire promote waste prevention and minimalisation and require Site Waste Management Plans for construction projects in the county.